Tue May 26 01:18:36 SGT 2015  
SINGAPORE
VD™
    Genital Warts
SINGAPORE VD™
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Genital Warts | SINGAPORE VD™

Summary

Genital Warts | SINGAPORE VD™ @singaporevd_com: Genital warts, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE VD™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: Genital Warts | SINGAPORE VD™
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

Table of Contents

Genital warts: penile warts / vaginal warts / anal warts / anogenital warts / venereal warts / condyloma / condylomata acuminata / "cauliflower" sex disease.

References

Warts - on male sex organ Genital warts appear within 3 months after sexual contact with an infected person.

Genital warts:

  • are usually soft, pink cauliflower-like growths or flesh-coloured bumps on the sex organs
  • may also be hard and smooth
  • occur alone or in groups
  • tend to recur after treatment
  • increase the risk of cervical cancer in women.


Warts - on female sex organ An infected woman may infect her newborn during childbirth.

A person with genital warts can infect others through sexual contact.



Genital warts treatment / HPV treatment

HPV / human papillomavirus.

  • 120 known human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • 51 HPV types, and 3 subtypes are genital HPV as they infect the genital mucosa.
  • 31 genital HPV types are low risk
  • 6 genital HPV types are intermediate risk
  • 17 genital HPV types are high risk
They cause Genital HPV types, cancer risk, vaccine and test coverage
Type
Species
Risk
Cervarix
Gardasil
Gardasil-9
DigeneHR
DigenePS
CobasHPV
Digene
HybriBio
PapilloCheck
InnoLiPA
LinearArray
61 3 L ----------+-
72 3 L ----------+-
81 3 L -------+--+-
83 3 L ----------+-
84 3 L ----------+-
62 3 L ----------+-
CP6108 3 L ----------+-
71 15 L ---------++-
26 5 H ---------++-
51 5 H ---+-++++++-
69 5 H ---------++-
82 5 H --------+++-
IS39 5 H ----------+-
18 7 H +++++++++++-
39 7 H ---+-++++++-
45 7 H --+++++++++-
59 7 H ---+-++++++-
68 7 H ---+-++++++-
70 7 H --------+++-
53 6 H -------++++-
56 6 H ---+-++++++-
66 6 H -----+-++++-
54 13 L ---------++-
42 1 L ------+++-+-
40 8 L --------+++-
43 8 L ------++++--
6 10 L -++---+++++-
11 10 L -++---+++++-
44 10 L ------++++--
74 10 L ---------+--
16 9 H +++++++++++-
31 9 H --++-++++++-
33 9 H --++-++++++-
35 9 H ---+-++++++-
52 9 H --++-++++++-
58 9 H --++-++++++-
67 9 H ----------+-
73 11 H --------+++-

Legend: 71 (CP 8061), 73/MM9, 81 (CP 8304), 82 (MM4), 82 (IS 39), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), 89 (CP 6108)

References

Cervical cancer HPV vaccine (previously known as cervical cancer vaccine) types:
  • Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant]
References Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant] - to be released in 2013 STD vaccine / hepatitis vaccine shot/jab/injection to prevent some STDs

Vaccine Against Disease Age D
o
s
e
s
Dose schedule Price
per
dose
(SG$)
Havrix™ 1440 Adult Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A ≥19y 2 m 0 & 6-12 $90/=
Twinrix® Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
1-15y 2 m 0, 6-12 $135/=
≥16y 3 m 0, 1, 6
4 d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Inactivated / Fractional / Protein / Subunit / Recombinant
Engerix™-B 20 μg Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 11-15y 2 m 0, & 6 $50/=
≥20y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
4 m 0, 1, 2, & 12 or
d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Gardasil® HPV
types 6, 11, 16, & 18
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
9-26y 3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$195/=
Cervarix® HPV
types 16, & 18
(31, 33, & 45)
10-25y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
m 0, 1, & 5
m 0, 2½, 12
$195/=
V503 HPV
types 6, 11, 16, 18,
31, 33, 45,
52, & 58
3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$???/=

HPV test for men/women.

  • Digene® High-Risk HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV Genotyping PS Test
  • Hybribio®
    • HPV GenoArray Test Kit
    • Detects 15 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68. And 6 low-risk HPV types: 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, CP8304
    • Able to differentiate which types are positive.
    • May be available in Singapore soon.
  • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Detects 14 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68
    • The test specifically identifies (types) HPV 16 and HPV 18, while concurrently detecting the rest of the high risk types (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68)
    • Cost is SG$200/=
  • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • Identifies 37 high-risk HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73 (MM9), 82 (MM4) low-risk HPV genotypes 6, 11, 26, 40, 42, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39, and CP6108
  • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • Identifies 15 high-risk HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82) 3 probable high-risk HPV genotypes (26, 53, 66) 7 low-risk HPV genotypes (6, 11, 40, 43, 44, 54, 70) and some additional types (69, 71, 74).
  • PapilloCheck®
    • PapilloCheck®
    • Identifies 24 hiv-risk HPV types 16 18 31 33 35 39 45 51 52 53 56 58 59 66 68 70 73 82 and low-risk HPV types 6 11 40 42 43 44

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception (females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing.
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception (females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute HIV rapid test - SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute HIV rapid test - OraQuick®:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

Unique Human Papillomavirus–Type Distribution in South African Women With Invasive Cervical Cancer and the Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Sat, 23 May 2015 08:35:09 +0100 | International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Conclusions: A high number of women in South Africa with cervical cancer are HIV positive. Without viral cross-protection, HPV vaccines should prevent around 65% of cervical cancers in this population. Human papillomavirus type 45 infection is significantly linked to HIV and important for future vaccine developments. (Source: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer)

Observations on the expression of human papillomavirus major capsid protein in HeLa cells
Sat, 23 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Cancer Cell International
Conclusions:

Comparison of two surgical methods for the treatment of CIN: classical LLETZ (large-loop excision of the transformation zone) versus isolated resection of the colposcopic apparent lesion – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Sat, 23 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Trials
DiscussionIn case that non-inferiority of the “lesion-only” method can be demonstrated, this operation should eventually become standard treatment for all women at childbearing age due to the reduction in risk of preterm delivery.Trial registrationGerman Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) Identifier: DRKS00006169. Date of registration: 30 July 2014. (Source: Trials)

Genomic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma determined by cancer gene-targeted sequencing
Sat, 23 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Annals of Oncology
Conclusion

Roles of human papillomavirus infection and stathmin in the pathogenesis of sinonasal inverted papilloma
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Head and Neck
ConclusionHPV infection was closely associated with recurrence and progression of SNIP. Stathmin is a valuable prognostic marker and could be considered as a therapeutic target in patients with SNIP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015 (Source: Head and Neck)

The human papillomavirus vaccination is not associated with risk of multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating diseases
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Evidence-Based Medicine
Commentary on: Scheller NM, Svanström H, Pasternak B, et al. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. JAMA 2015;313:54–61 . Context The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been available worldwide since 2006 and over 170 million doses have been distributed. Although the HPV vaccination has demonstrated benefits in preventing precancerous lesions of the cervix, some parents forego vaccination due to safety concerns.1 While not commonly reported, concerns about neurological side effects have been aired in the media. Rigorous postmarketing analyses to assess for unintended sequelae of new medications are warranted and public concerns have prompted several high-quality studies assessing the HPV...

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 2592-2617: Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Viruses
Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that ...

Viral load and mRNA expression of HPV type 6 among cases with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | The Laryngoscope
ConclusionThe amount of HPV6‐DNA was consistently higher in the papilloma than in healthy mucosa. The transcription level of HPV6 E7 mRNA was similar in the papilloma and in normal mucosa. We suggest that interfering with replication of HPV6 and suppression of HPV6 to fewer than five copies/cell may be curative.

Seborrheic Keratosis With Bowenoid Transformation: The Immunohistochemical Features and Its Association With Human Papillomavirus Infection
Thu, 21 May 2015 16:07:06 +0100 | The American Journal of Dermatopathology
In conclusion, a portion of the cases of SK with bowenoid transformation were associated with HPV infection. Selective immunohistochemical stains were helpful in the diagnosis of malignant change in these cases. (Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology)

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 2485-2506: High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling
Thu, 21 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Viruses
Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellular proteins to interfere with signaling of innate and adaptive immune pathways. This results in impairment of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent immune cell attraction, as well as resistance to incoming signals from the immune system. Furthermore, hrHPV avoids the killi...