HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™
HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™ @singaporevd_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment to stop HIV infection within 72 hours of exposure, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Phenotypic and functional profiles of NK cells exhibiting MMP‐mediated CD16 cleavage after anti‐HIV antibody‐dependent activation
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 22:44:27 +0100 | Clinical and Experimental Immunology
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Social support as a protective factor for depression among women caring for children in HIV-endemic South Africa
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 21:43:02 +0100 | Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Thyroid carcinoma showing thymus-like elements: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis.
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 20:10:48 +0100 | American Journal of Clinical Pathology
CONCLUSIONS: GLUT-1 can be used as a novel biomarker for CASTLE, and combined detection of GLUT-1 with CD5 and CD117 aids in the diagnosis of this tumor. Aberrant expression of Bcl-2, p53, p16, E-cadherin, EGFR, C-KIT, and HER-2 may play important roles in the development of CASTLE.
Clinical Significance of First-Trimester Screening of the Retronasal Triangle for Identification of Primary Cleft Palate
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 17:20:43 +0100 | Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Conclusion: The RNT is an important sonographic landmark that has a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of OC in the first trimester. 3D ultrasound is an important tool that aids in confirming diagnosis of OC in the first and second trimesters.Fetal Diagn Ther (Source: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy)
Sonar Technology Aids People with Vision Disabilities
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 15:02:57 +0100 | Disabled World
When a biologist who studies bats and a computer scientist cross paths, amazingly cool things can happen. Cool things such as a sonar device to assist people with vision disabilities. (Source: Disabled World)
Africa: Ahead of the African Union Summit, New Champions Join Efforts for an Aids-Free Generation in Africa
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 14:59:39 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[UNAIDS]Gaborone -Today, the Champions for an AIDS-Free Generation (Champions) announced that four leaders are joining their distinguished ranks. The new Champions are: Kgalema Motlanthe, former President of South Africa; Joyce Banda, former President of Malawi; Alpha Oumar Konaré, former President of Mali; and Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Acute Phase of Kawasaki Disease
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 14:11:56 +0100 | Mammalian Genome
Participation in research as a means of improving quality of care: the role of a principal investigator in multicentre clinical trials
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist
Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis [Case Reports]
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Citrinin detection using phage-displayed anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody for antigen mimicry
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Food Chemistry
In conclusion, the proposed P-ELISA demonstrates the potential use of phage-displayed anti-idiotypic VHH as surrogate for small molecules and signal-amplification carrier to improve assay performance for more sensitive analyte detection in food safety monitoring. (Source: Food Chemistry)