HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™
HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™ @singaporevd_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment to stop HIV infection within 72 hours of exposure, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV PEP | SINGAPORE VD™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Association of Employee Attributes and Exceptional Performance Rating at a National Center of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
Wed, 27 May 2015 20:39:41 +0100 | Journal of Public Health Management and Practice
Conclusions: Exceptional SPR is independently associated with personal employee attributes and job settings that are not modifiable by interventions designed to improve employee performance based on accomplishments. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)
Drugs to keep people with HIV alive should be given without delay, trial finds
Wed, 27 May 2015 18:41:22 +0100 | Guardian Unlimited Science
Scientists in Europe and Africa find that antiretroviral treatment should be administered before HIV virus has weakened the immune system Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Prevalence and behavioural risks for HIV and HCV infections in a population of drug users of Dakar, Senegal: the ANRS 12243 UDSEN study.
Wed, 27 May 2015 18:26:02 +0100 | Journal of the International AIDS Society
CONCLUSIONS: High HIV and HCV prevalence were estimated in this population of DUs (including non-injectors) living in the Dakar area, Senegal, whereas HBV prevalence was close to that of the global Senegalese population, reflecting a risk of infection independent of drug use. Women seem to be highly vulnerable and deserve targeted interventions for decreasing exposure to HIV, while behavioural risk factors for HIV and HCV include the use of unsafe injections, reflecting the urgent need for developing harm reduction interventions and access to opioid substitution therapy services.
Targeting Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among MSMTargeting Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among MSM
Wed, 27 May 2015 14:17:25 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
What targeting strategies are most effective when implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
South Africa: Durban to Host 2016 Aids Conference
Wed, 27 May 2015 09:46:51 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[News24Wire] The eThekwini Municipality will host the International Aids Conference in 2016, it was announced on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Legislator Calls for Sex Work Ban in Zanzibar
Wed, 27 May 2015 08:07:14 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Daily News] Zanzibar -AMID fears that HIV prevalence in Zanzibar is increasing, Ms Ashura Sharif Ali (Special Seats- CUF) has suggested that women and men engaged in commercial sex should be banned in the islands. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Mixed Reactions Over Condoms in Schools
Wed, 27 May 2015 08:05:51 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[The Herald] Johannesburg -South Africa's Department of Basic Education (DBE) is considering distributing condoms to primary and secondary schools as part of the government's move to curb the prevalence of HIV, but there are mixed reactions over the proposal. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Mayor Takes HIV Test Publicly
Wed, 27 May 2015 06:36:16 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Gaborone mayor, Mr Kagiso Thutlwe, on May 23, took an HIV test publicly in an effort to encourage the public to follow suite. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 160,000 Nigerian Adolescents HIV Positive - NACA
Wed, 27 May 2015 05:50:36 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Leadership] A report presented by Ms Victoria Isiramen of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), has revealed that about 160,000 Nigerian adolescents are infected with the HIV virus while 11,000 have died from the epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Country Not Doing Enough to Fight HIV/Aids - UNAIDS
Wed, 27 May 2015 05:48:17 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Premium Times] The country director, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Bilali Camara, on Tuesday said Nigeria requires $1.2bn (N236.4 trillion) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)