HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE VD™
HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE VD™ @singaporevd_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) symptoms/signs in men/women, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Symptoms | SINGAPORE VD™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
| Notes || Sampling Method |
Time to Results
Cost / Price
| 0-72 hours |
No test available
| || |
| 2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days) |
HIV DNA test
- A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
- Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
- Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
- Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
| 1 month |
HIV combo test
| || Fingerprick |
HIV rapid test
| 1 month |
HIV duo test
| || Venipuncture|
| 3 months |
| || HIV oral test /|
HIV saliva test /
HIV rapid test
| 3 months |
HIV blood test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV western blot test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV RNA test
| || Venipuncture|
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
A Novel Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Malondialdehyde from Oxidized DNA
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 20:43:39 +0100 | Springer protocols feed by Biochemistry
Malondialdehyde (MA) is known to form from various lipids upon oxidation as one of secondary oxidation products. Determination of MA formed from lipid peroxidation has been used to examine occurrence of oxidative damages associated with many diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, inflammation, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and AIDS as well as aging. Analysis of MA is, however, extremely difficult because it is highly reactive and readily polymerized and forming adducts with biological substances such as proteins, phospholipids, and DNA (Shibamoto, J Pharm Biomed Anal 41:12–25, 2002). Gas chromatographic method using stable derivative, 1-methylpyrazole was advanced and has been successfully used to analyze MA in various lipids and lipid-rich foods. This method was also a...
Failure of combined antiretroviral therapy intensification with maraviroc and raltegravir in chronically HIV-1 infected patients to reduce the viral reservoir: the IntensHIV randomized trial.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 17:05:04 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the intensification of a Protease Inhibitor regimen with Maraviroc and Raltegravir does not impact the blood proviral DNA reservoir of HIV but can decrease the cell-associated HIV RNA, the CD8 activation and has a possible impact on rectal proviral HIV DNA in some patients.
Impact of second-line antiretroviral regimens on lipid profiles in an African setting: the DART trial sub-study.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 17:05:04 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSION: Modest lipid elevations were observed in African patients on predominantly LPV/r + NNRTI-based second-line regimens. Routine lipid monitoring during second-line ART regimens may not be warranted in this setting but individual cardiovascular risk assessment should guide practice.
Exploring the clinical approach to the bimodal fitting of hearing aids and cochlear implants: results of an international survey.
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 16:15:12 +0100 | Acta Oto-Laryngologica
Conclusions: The results show that the fitting of a contralateral hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear of cochlear implant (CI) recipients is now well established as standard clinical practice. However, there is a lack of experience in HA fitting within the CI centres and the use of published bimodal fitting procedures is poor. The HA is often not refitted after CI switch-on and this may contribute to rejection. Including a bimodal fitting prescription and process in the CI fitting software would make applying a balancing procedure easier and may increase its implementation in routine clinical practice.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to Collaborate on New AIDS Research Project
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:11:40 +0100 | Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is one of six organizations that will collaborate on a five-year global initiative supported by an award from USAID that provides up to $70 million in funding. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)
Progress in HIV Care: Men Who Have Sex With MenProgress in HIV Care: Men Who Have Sex With Men
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 14:06:38 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
Men who have sex with men are the most at risk group for HIV infection. Are we meeting targeted goals for providing them with care? Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Tanzania: Moshi Council Boost Nacopha in Business Activities
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 10:58:50 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Daily News]Moshi -MEMBERS of the National Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS Tanzania (NACOPHA) in Moshi District Council have been offered 37m/- to engage in entrepreneurial activities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New UNDP Report Highlights the Role That Cash Transfers Can Play in Preventing HIV
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:57:27 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[UNDP]New York City -Today, on the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, UNDP has released a new report on cash transfers and HIV prevention. Cash transfers are a major tool in the fight against poverty in its many forms. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: We Are Neglected, Women Living With HIV Cry Out
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:32:37 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Vanguard]They wore long faces, their cries and lamentations loud and clear. With a common voice, they stated their case, telling stories of woe and anguish. As Persons Living With HIV/AIDS, PLWHA, they share a common destiny but with a common hope. They were united in their situation, bordering on what they termed negligence by the government, leading to inadequate welfare and poor outlook to life. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lagos Tackles Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 08:15:21 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Vanguard]WORRIED by the high rate of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV, MTCT, and overall high maternal death rate in the state, the Lagos state government has put together a renewed campaign to accelerate the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV, PMTCT, towards reducing maternal death in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)